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General Causes

General Causes ofInfertility

There are many causes of infertility, and here some of them to discuss.

Get Infertility Treatment from Dr. Jasmine Kaur Dahyia - IVF, Infertility, Test Tube Baby & Gynaecology Specialist
Causes of Infertility: Get Infertility Treatment from Dr. Jasmine Kaur Dahyia - IVF, Infertility, Test Tube Baby & Gynaecology Specialist

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Causes of male infertility: Get Infertility Treatment from Dr. Jasmine Kaur Dahyia - IVF, Infertility, Test Tube Baby & Gynaecology Specialist

General Causes of Male Fertility

Following are some of the main reasons for infertility in males.

Pretesticular Causes

Hypogonadism due to various causes,Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking, Strenuous riding (bicycle riding, horseback riding).

Testicular Factors

Bad Semen Quality.

Oligospermia

Low semen volume.

Oligozoospermia

Few spermatozoa in semen.

Aspermia

Complete lack of semen.

Azoospermia

Absence of sperm cells in semen.

Teratospermia

Sperm with abnormal morphology.

Asthenozoospermia

Reduced sperm motility.

There are various combinations of these as well, e.g. Teratoasthenozoospermia, which is reduced sperm morphology and motility.

Factors that, in turn, affect the semen quality

Genetic defects on the Y chromosome, Y chromosome microdeletions, Abnormal set of chromosomes, Klinefelter syndrome, Neoplasm, e.g. seminoma, Idiopathic failure, Cryptorchidism, Varicocele (14% in one study), Trauma, Hydrocele, Mumps, Malaria, Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, Defects in USP26 in some cases.

Posttesticular Causes

Vas deferens obstruction, Lack of Vas deferens, often related to genetic markers for Cystic Fibrosis, Infection, e.g. prostatitis, Retrograde ejaculation, Ejaculatory duct obstruction, Hypospadias, Impotence, Acrosomal defect/egg penetration defect, Infertility is also thought to be passed on to the son from the father.

Causes of female infertility: Get Infertility Treatment from Dr. Jasmine Kaur Dahyia - IVF, Infertility, Test Tube Baby & Gynaecology Specialist

General Causes of Female Fertility

You need to ovulate - Achieving pregnancy requires that you're having regular menstrual cycles during which an egg is released, a process known as ovulation. Your doctor can help evaluate your menstrual cycles and confirm ovulation.

Your partner needs sperm - For most couples, this isn't a problem unless your partner has a history of illness or surgery. Your doctor can run some simple tests to evaluate the health of your partner's sperm.

You need to have regular intercourse - You need to have regular sexual intercourse during your fertile time. Your doctor may be able to help you better understand when you're most fertile during your cycle. For pregnancy to occur, every part of the complex human reproduction process — from the ovary's release of a mature egg to the fertilization of the egg to the fertilized egg's implantation and growth in the uterus — has to take place just right. In women, a number of factors can disrupt this process at any stage. Female infertility is caused by one or more of these factors.

Oligozoospermia

Few spermatozoa in semen

Aspermia

Complete lack of semen

Azoospermia

Absence of sperm cells in semen

Teratospermia

Sperm with abnormal morphology

Asthenozoospermia

Reduced sperm motility

There are various combinations of these as well, e.g. Teratoasthenozoospermia, which is reduced sperm morphology and motility.

Factors that, in turn, affect the semen quality

Genetic defects on the Y chromosome, Y chromosome microdeletions, Abnormal set of chromosomes, Klinefelter syndrome, Neoplasm, e.g. seminoma, Idiopathic failure, Cryptorchidism, Varicocele (14% in one study), Trauma, Hydrocele, Mumps, Malaria, Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, Defects in USP26 in some cases.

Posttesticular causes - Vas deferens obstruction, Lack of Vas deferens, often related to genetic markers for Cystic Fibrosis, Infection, e.g. prostatitis, Retrograde ejaculation, Ejaculatory duct obstruction, Hypospadias, Impotence, Acrosomal defect/egg penetration defect, Infertility is also thought to be passed on to the son from the father.

Ovulation Disorder: Get Infertility Treatment from Dr. Jasmine Kaur Dahyia - IVF, Infertility, Test Tube Baby & Gynaecology Specialist

Ovulation Disorder

Ovulation disorders account for infertility in 25 percent of infertile couples. These can be caused by flaws in the regulation of reproductive hormones by the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, or by problems in the ovary itself. You have an ovulation disorder if you ovulate infrequently or not at all.

The two hormones responsible for stimulating ovulation each month — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) — are produced by the pituitary gland in a specific pattern during the menstrual cycle. Excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, or a recent substantial weight gain or loss — for instance, 10 percent of your body weight — can disrupt this pattern and affect ovulation. The main sign of this problem is irregular or absent periods. Much less commonly, specific diseases of the pituitary, usually associated with other hormone deficiencies or with excess production of prolactin, may be the cause.

Abnormal FSH and LH Secretion

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

In PCOS, complex changes occur in the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary, resulting in overproduction of male hormones (androgens), which affects ovulation. PCOS can also be associated with insulin resistance and obesity.

Luteal Phase Defect

Luteal phase defect happens when your ovary doesn't produce enough of the hormone progesterone after ovulation. Progesterone is vital in preparing the uterine lining for a fertilized egg.

Premature Ovarian Failure

This disorder is usually caused by an autoimmune response, where your body mistakenly attacks ovarian tissues. It results in the loss of the eggs in the ovary, as well as in decreased estrogen production.

Damage to Fallopian Tubes (Tubal Infertility)

When fallopian tubes become damaged or blocked, they keep sperm from getting to the egg or close off the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus. Causes of fallopian tube damage or blockage can include.

1. Inflammation of the fallopian tubes (salpingitis) due to chlamydia or gonorrhea.

2. Previous ectopic pregnancy, in which a fertilized egg becomes implanted and starts to develop in a fallopian tube instead of in the uterus.

3. Previous surgery in the abdomen or pelvis.

Endometriosis

Endometriosis occurs when tissue that normally grows in the uterus implants and grows in other locations. This extra tissue growth — and the surgical removal of it — can cause scarring, which impairs fertility. Researchers think that the excess tissue may also produce substances that interfere with conception.

Cervical Narrowing or Blockage

Also called cervical stenosis, this can be caused by an inherited malformation or damage to the cervix. The result is that the cervix can't produce the best type of mucus for sperm mobility and fertilization. In addition, the cervical opening may be closed, preventing any sperm from reaching the egg.

Uterine Causes

Benign polyps or tumors (fibroids or myomas) in the uterus, common in women in their 30s, can impair fertility by blocking the fallopian tubes or by disrupting implantation. However, many women who have fibroids can become pregnant. Scarring within the uterus also can disrupt implantation, and some women born with uterine abnormalities, such as an abnormally shaped (bicornuate) uterus, can have problems becoming or remaining pregnant.

Unexplained Infertility

In some instances, a cause for infertility is never found. It's possible that combinations of minor factors in both partners underlie these unexplained fertility problems. The good news is that couples with unexplained infertility have the highest rates of spontaneous pregnancy of all infertile couples.

Department

Infertility Assessment: Get Infertility Treatment from Dr. Jasmine Kaur Dahyia - IVF, Infertility, Test Tube Baby & Gynaecology Specialist
Infertility Assessment

Infertility Assesment of Women:

The etiology of female infertility can be broken down into ovulation disorders, uterine abnormalities, tubal obstruction and peritoneal factors.

 

Infertility Assesment of Men:

Evaluation of male infertility starts with a history and physical examination of previous fertility, pelvic or inguinal surgeries, systemic diseases and exposures.

Infertility Investigation: Get Infertility Treatment from Dr. Jasmine Kaur Dahyia - IVF, Infertility, Test Tube Baby & Gynaecology Specialist
Investigation

Investigation of Women:

A review of systems and physical examination of the endocrine and gynecologic systems should be performed.

 

Investigation of Men:

The laboratory evaluation begins with a semen analysis. Instructions for collecting the sample should include abstinence from ejaculation for 48 to 72 hours.

Diagnosis of Infertility: Get Infertility Treatment from Dr. Jasmine Kaur Dahyia - IVF, Infertility, Test Tube Baby & Gynaecology Specialist
Diagnosis of Infertility

Diagnosis Female:

It is very important that the male partner be evaluated during initial work up. A history of genital infections, trauma or environmental exposure.

 

Diagnosis Male:

The diagnosis of infertility begins with a medical history and physical exam by a urologist, preferably one with experience or who specializes in male infertility.